老子书院 - 枫叶智库
枫叶教育网 - 打造具有特色品牌的地方教育门户
项目学习如何开展?How to Create a Project-Based Learning Lesson
作者:北师大PBL课题组 来源:北师大项目学习 点击:337次 评论:0

项目学习如何开展?

How to Create a Project-Based Learning Lesson?

Jenny Pieratt


If you would have asked me a decade ago if I thought Project Based Learning would ever expand beyond a small pocket of innovative schools I would have said “I doubt it”; I could never have  imagined that it would  be such a widely-used buzzword in 2020. To my pleasant surprise it has expanded to mainstream vernacular and is continuing to sweep acrossschools in our country.

十年前,如果你问我,项目学习是否会在一小部分创新学校之外推广,我会说“我怀疑”;我从来没有想到它会在2020年成为一个如此广泛使用的流行概念。令我惊喜的是,它越来越主流,席卷美国。

And yet, despite all the buzz surrounding it, there still is a pretty wide range of understanding as to what high quality PBL is, and more importantly, how to plan for and facilitate it. To many, PBL is met with uncertainty and apprehension; while terms used to describe PBL, like organized chaos, productive noise, and student-driven sound appealing tosome, for the majority it creates a lot of unnecessary ambiguity.

尽管PBL日趋盛行,但对于什么是高质量的PBL以及如何设计PBL,仍然存在广泛的讨论。虽然一些用于描述 PBL 的术语,如组织的混乱、生产性噪音和学生驱动的声音对某些人很有吸引力,但对于大多数人来说,这些描述会产生歧义。

To most teachers’ surprise, I like to think about PBL as a structure, almost a formula, that can both uphold academic rigor and also engage students. To show you what that structure looks like in action, I’ll walk you through how I plan a PBL lesson step by step.

令大多数老师惊讶的是,我喜欢把PBL看作一种结构,几乎是一种公式,既能保持学术严谨,又能吸引学生。我将通过PBL的课程设计一步一步向大家展示这个结构。


Project-Based Learning: A Working Definition

项目学习:一个成功的定义

Before we jump into how to approach planning a project, it’s important that we are operating from the same definition of PBL, because there are many! After years of working in the leading organizations of the PBL movement I came to arrive on the following as my non-negotiables for a project to reflect high quality PBL:

It is grounded in standards.

It incorporates best practices of assessment for learning.

It’s authentic to the given community.

It explicitly scaffolds and assesses 21st century skills.

由于PBL的定义种类繁多,在我们开始讨论如何规划一个项目之前,首先需要明确PBL的定义。在参与组织PBL多年后,以下是我得出的高质量PBL所需具备的要素:

它以标准为基础。

它结合了学习评价和实践

它是在真实情境中产生的。

它明确地勾勒和评估了核心素养

So what does it look like to put these non-negotiables into practice and plan a project? I will walk you through the process I have come to embrace and share with teachers who cross my path, either through our time together in the trenches during project coaching, or when they pick up my book, Keep it Real with PBL (for elementary and secondary). The specific project I highlight here, Silent Voices, is a collaborative effort between myself and the 5th grade team at Lake Elementary in Vista, CA.

那么,如何将这些必备要素付诸实践并计划一个项目呢?我将分享我的经历,也会和你们分享一些和我一起共事参与指导项目学习的老师,或者是我的书“Keep it Real with PBL”。我在这里分享的项目是“Silent Voices”(“沉默的群体”),是我和加州维斯塔湖小学五年级的团队合作的成果。

The 5th grade team at Lake Elementary is comprised of four teachers. The team wanted to tackle a content area they knew they needed to go “deeper” with to better engage their students: The American Revolution. We knew this topic was difficult to make interesting for students, but we believed that through PBL we could successfully provide them with a rigorous, authentic and meaningful learning experience.

四名老师组成了莱克小学(Lake Elementary)五年级的团队。该团队想要教授的内容是美国独立战争,并且需要通过深入学习以吸引学生。美国独立战争这个话题很难让学生感兴趣,但我们相信通过PBL可以成功地为他们带来严谨、真实、有意义的学习体验。


Step 1


Brainstorm Authentic Project Ideas

第一步:头脑风暴项目设想


I often hear from teachers that getting started with a project idea is the hardest part, but for me it’s the most exciting part! I encourage teachers to identify a Driving Standard (these typically come from science orsocial studies because they both provide a nice context, which math or ELA can easily support). From there, think about a current issue that brings the standards to life.

我经常听老师说,项目学习中最难的部分是最初产生对项目的设想,但对我来说,这是最令人兴奋的部分! 我鼓励老师们确定一个驱动标准(这些标准通常来自科学或社会学科,比如数学和英语,因为它们能提供支持情境)。在此基础上,构建一个现实情境将标准带入生活。

Knowing they wanted to teach about the American Revolution, the teachers pulled the California social studies standards they were responsible for covering; specifically, 5.5: “Students explain the causes of the American Revolution” and 5.6: “Students understand the course and consequences of the American Revolution.”

老师们知道自己想要教授关于美国独立战争的知识,于是就删除了本来涵盖加州社会研究标准的内容,具体来说是删除了章节5.5:“学生解释美国独立战争爆发的原因”和章节5.6:“学生了解美国独立战争的过程和后果”两部分。

We sat around a whiteboard and threw up abunch of ideas that could possibly make students interested in an event from over 200 years ago. We landed on the concept of connecting hidden voices (an issue that would feel relevant to them as 10 year olds) and empathy-building (a character trait from school also familiar to them) to the historic event. We also landed on supporting standards of Common Core ELA for narrative writing, compare and contrast, and research; but more on that later!

我们围坐在白板周围,提出了一堆可能会让学生对200多年前的事件感兴趣的想法。最终我们形成了一个能将hidden voices(隐藏的声音)和同理心构建与独立战争联系起来的想法。我们还为英语学习的共同素养(common core)培养制定了促进方案,包括叙事写作、比较和对比以及研究。稍后会详细介绍!


Step 2


Plan with the End in Mind

第二步:制定最终目标——项目产品


My approach to project planning is verymuch rooted in Understanding by Design (UBD), so once I have identified the standards and an authentic issue, I then jump to the final product. There are so many ways students can show what they have learned—from public service announcements, to podcasts or documentaries, to art installations and simulations or performances. Whatever is decided upon, all the project planning from this point on is in service of preparing students to ultimately produce that final product.

我的项目规划方法来基于理解的教学设计理论(UBD),所以一旦我确定了标准和情境,我就会跳转到最终产品的设计。学生们可以通过很多方式展示他们所学到的东西——公共服务公告、播客、纪录片、艺术装置、模拟等等。无论确定哪一种形式,所有项目计划都是为了让学生为产出最终的产品做准备。

As we continued planning this project, the teachers at Lake realized that there was SO much they could do with this concept of elevating silenced voices and building empathy awareness, that weactually had to scale back our final product ideas! Together we landed on having students create two final products:

当我们继续设计这个项目时,Lake Elementary的老师们意识到,他们可以用”silenced voices”(“沉默的群体”)和同理心构建的想法设计一系列活动,这让我们把最终项目产品的种类缩减到两种。

1) 2-voice poetry, which is a style of narrative poetry that showcases the similarities and differences between two unique perspectives, or voices. Students would write and create an audio recording of the reading of their written poetry to share via listeningstations at Open House Exhibition. This final product would showcase important ELA skills such as speaking and listening standards, the use of technology and writing production, and narrative writing techniques.

1)第一个产品是二声部诗(two -voice poetry),它是一种叙事诗风格,表现了两种独特的视角或声音之间的异同。学生会创作并录制阅读自己写的诗歌的音频,并在开放日展览的聆听站与大家分享。最终的产品将展示侧重展示英语技能,如听、说能力以及写作技巧等。

2) Student art: Students would represent their understanding of a “hidden voice” or silenced perspective in a contemporary issue using symbolism and a specific art style (photography, digital art, painting, or pop art). Students would also write a detailed artist statement for submission of their work to the San Diego County Fair. In this artist statement students would explain the historical and contemporary inspiration for their work, style choices, and influences; thus bringing together the social studies standards and ELA research standards (and possibly en art standards if the art teacher chose to collaborate!), using topics of student interest as the context of the product.

2)第二个产品是艺术作品:学生将使用象征主义和特定的艺术风格(摄影、数字艺术、绘画或波普艺术)来阐释他们对“hidden voice:”隐藏的声音”或沉默群体视角的理解。在提交他们的作品到圣地亚哥县博览会时,学生还需要写一份详细的艺术创作声明。在声明中,学生将解释他们的灵感、作品风格的选择和创作影响力;从而将社会研究标准和英语习得(ELA)研究标准(如果艺术老师也参会与合作的话,甚至可能是艺术标准)结合起来,使用学生感兴趣的主题作为产品的背景。


Step 3

Benchmark Your Project

第三步:分解项目


This is arguably the most important step because it ensures that best practices of scaffolding and formative assessment are embedded in the project. Benchmarking is simply taking your end products and breaking them down into manageable phases, or milestones. Within each of these benchmarks the teacher identifies the content and skills necessary tocomplete the given phase of the project. Tied to each benchmark is a concrete deliverable that students turn in to be formatively assessed. While dailychecks for understanding are still happening and smaller assignments may becollected for credit, project benchmark deliverables are formatively assessed using a project rubric (more on that next!) and recorded in the grade book.

这是最重要的一步,在本环节中落实了项目学习脚手架的搭建和形成性评价的实施。设计分解项目是将最终产品分解成几个阶段。在每个子环节中,教师确定不同项目阶段所需的内容和方法。每个子阶段都需要产出一份具体的子任务成果,学生上交后将接受评估。日常的评估方式仍在实施,子产品会被收集来获取学分,子产品和每个子环节的形成性评价会记录在成绩册中。

For the Silent Voices project, we identified the following benchmarks and deliverables:

In Benchmark #1 students learned about the “big picture” historical context of the American Revolution—the causes of the revolution and the early events and individuals—through textbook readings, PowerPoint lectures, videos and other short readings. The focus of these individuals and events was from a Eurocentric perspective—typical of what we would find in most textbooks. Students also began novels that represented voices of those we don’t typically hear in our textbooks: enslaved people, children, women,etc. To show that students had mastered the necessary content from thisbenchmark they completed a traditional history quiz. Sometimes it’s okay to include traditional assessment methods as benchmark deliverables—you don’t have to throw the baby out with the bath water in PBL, and in these circumstances a rubric isn’t necessary for grading since the feedback and the depth of learning are limited.

对于“silenced voices”项目,我们确定了以下子任务和可交付成果:

分解项目1: 学生们通过课本阅读、讲座、视频和其他读物了解了美国独立战争的大背景——包括革命的起因、早期事件和重要人物。这些基于欧洲中心角度的群体和事件在大多数教科书都有所提及。学生们也开始阅读小说,这些小说涵盖了教科书中不曾提及的群体:奴隶、儿童、妇女等等。为了表明学生已经掌握了这个子任务的必要内容,他们需要进行一个测试(不需要打分)。

Benchmark #2 focused on the experiences ofthe “silent voices” in the American Revolution. Teachers provided model texts through short stories of Native Americans, white women, enslaved people, lower class,Chinese, religious groups, and children. Students continued reading their literature circle novels during ELA and also learned about narrative writing techniques through writers workshop methods. The benchmark deliverable for this second section of the project was a piece of writing titled “A Day in the Life of…” which represented what daily life was like for a person from one of the groups of the “silent voices.” This deliverable showcased their narrative writing skills, textual analysis skills, and content mastery for social studies. Because the textbooksdon’t provide the perspective of “the silent voices” students truly had to synthesize, analyze and apply what they were learning in ELA and social studies to be able to complete this benchmark—the higher order thinking that this project requires is one of the many reasons I love it!

分解项目2:本环节关注的是美国独立战争中沉默的群体(“silent voices”)的经历。教师提供关于美洲原住民、白人妇女、奴隶、下层阶级、中国人、宗教团体和儿童的短篇故事作为范文。学生阅读小说,并通过工作坊学习叙事写作技巧。项目第二部分的评价标准是一篇题为“A Day in the Life of…”(生活在XX的一天)的文章,它代表了“沉默的群体”的日常生活。文章将侧重展示他们的叙述写作技能、文本分析技能和对社会研究内容的掌握情况。因为教科书不提供“沉默的群体”的视角,学生需要通过分析、应用、整合他们语言学习成果和相关社会研究才能够完成这个的子任务。这项任务体现了项目学习中的高阶思维,这也正是我推崇它的一个原因。

Benchmark #3 required students to continue analyzing what they were learning on this topic by collaborating with a peer tofind the differences and commonalities across two unique “silent voices.” Students were guided through the processby discussion protocols, visible thinking routines, completing a venn diagram,and a workshop on 2 voice poetry. Ultimately they wrote and recorded the audio for this benchmark’s deliverable, a 2 voice poem to show two different perspectives from the American Revolution. This benchmark used narrative writing techniques from the second benchmark as well.

分解任务3:本环节要求学生继续分析他们关于本主题所学的内容。通过同伴合作,找出两个“沉默的群体”之间的差异和共同点。在过程中,学生们通过讨论、可视化思维过程、完成维恩图和进行二声部诗研讨会的方式进行学习。在本环节中,学生的产出是能够展示美国独立战争的两个不同视角二声部诗,他们需要创作并录制诗歌的音频。这个环节也使用了分解任务2的叙述写作技巧。

Benchmark #4 moved students from the historical time period of the American Revolution to the current day. Throughout this benchmark students were challenged to look for the perspective of the “silent voices”—whose story are we not hearing? Students were exposed to some contemporary issues though various forms of media, conducted a survey of other students to gauge problems within their student population, engaged in more discussion protocols and ultimately landed on a topic for their own research based ontheir interest (Special Interest Groups-SIG). After conducting this researchstudents created a detailed graphic organizer to show what they had collected and organized; some students chose to complete an info graphic as a challenge option.

分解任务4:本环节学生从美国独立战争的历史视角转移到当下。他们需要寻找没有被大家了解的“沉默的群体”。通过多媒体学生可以接触到一些现实问题,通过同伴调查学生可以获取他们共同存在的问题,因此他们可以参与更多的讨论协议,并最终根据他们的兴趣找到自己研究的主题(特殊兴趣小组 -SIG)。找到研究主题后,学生创建一个详细的图形组织器,以显示他们收集和组织的内容;一些学生把完成信息图作为挑战选项。

Benchmark #5: In the final benchmark students applied everything they had learned about searching for the story of “silent voices” through historical and contemporary events, and used art as the vehicle for showcasing their knowledge and skills. Each of the four teachers identified a style of art they were passionate about—photography, digital art, painting and pop art. Each teacher created a series of workshops about their art style,including well-known artists, artistic composition, and basics of color and design. Students worked with the teacher that matched their interest, analyzedmodels from their given style, and ultimately learned how to create a piece of work that showed the silent voices in a given current issue from their research. Students went through the critique process of drafting and also completed an artist statement with their final product—all of which was curated and exhibited for the community.

分解任务5: 在最后的环节中,学生们运用所学,通过历史和当代事件寻找“沉默的群体”的故事,并以艺术作品的方式展示自己所学。这四名老师都确定了自己热爱的艺术风格——摄影、数字艺术、绘画和波普艺术。每个老师都创建了一系列关于他们艺术风格的工作坊,包括著名艺术家、艺术构成、色彩和设计的基础知识。学生们与符合他们兴趣的老师一起工作,从他们给定的风格分析模型,最终学会如何创作一件作品,展示他们的研究中给定的当前问题中的无声群体。学生在过程中通过起草和修改的方式,完成了艺术作品创作声明以及最终产品,所有这些都是为真实情境策划并展示的。


Step 4

Build Your Project Rubrics

第四步:制定评估标准


In keeping with the spirit of UBD, I also create assessment tools with the end in mind, which produces a pretty large project rubric (but never fear, we never use ALL of it at once—more on that in step 6.

为了与UBD的理念保持一致,我还创建了评价最终学习目标的评价工具——

项目评价量规

To build this rubric I encourage teachersto take the following steps:

为了建立这一量表,我鼓励教师采取以下步骤:

Finalize the content standards you plan to assess; Note: each content standard gets its own row on the rubric. Then dropeach content standard into the “proficient” column of your rubric. In the case of the Silent Voices project we identified social studies standards on the American Revolution and Common Core ELA standards for narrative writing, compare and contrast, and research. Pull up Blooms Taxonomy verbs and bold theverbs in the language of the standards in a given domain. From there, referenceBlooms verbs to help you write the language of one level up (advanced) and onelevel down (developing/emerging). For example: Identify which 21st century skills you wantto scaffold and assess in the project. I like to use these New Tech Network rubrics and simply copy and paste the rows in their entirety into my project rubric. For this project we identified Collaboration: Commitment to Shared Success, and Agency-Growth Mindset.

确定评价的内容标准:每个内容标准都单独成行。在“沉默群体”项目中,我们确定了将美国独立战争的社会研究标准,以及英语习得中关于叙事写作、比较手法等共同素养作为内容标准。参考布鲁姆目标分类学中的动词,并在给定域中用加粗显示这些动词。在此基础上,使用布鲁姆目标分类学动词来帮助教师写出高层级和低层级(发展中/新兴)的语言。例如:确定共同素养(common core)是你想在项目中落实和评估的。我喜欢使用这些新技术网络的规则,简单地复制和粘贴在项目量表中。对于这个项目,我们将合作定义为:共享成功的承诺,以及机构成长的心态。

Step 5


Plan for Formative Assessment

第五步:制定形成性评价方案

Once the project rubric is completed then you can begin to think about which rows will be used with which benchmarks. Each benchmark will get its own separate, smaller rubric that will only have a few standards on it. I encourage teachers to try to map it out so that each row of the larger project rubric is used twice throughout the project. The purpose of this is so that students can reflect, receive feedback and have the opportunity to grow in each area at multiple points throughout the project; this is truly assessment for learning, rather than assessment of learning. What this also means is that each benchmark will likely only be assessed using 2-3 rows from your (very large!) rubric.

一旦完成了项目量规的设计,接下来就可以开始考虑每个分解项目将使用何种评价方式。每个子任务都有自己独立的、更精准的量规,教师可以根据项目整体的量规将子任务所需的量规绘制出来(每个子任务很可能只使用项目量规中的 2-3 项行进行评估)。这样的评价方式让学生能够在整个项目过程中进行多方面反思、持续接受反馈并有所成长,是真正的以评促学

You can see which rows of the rubric wereused for which benchmarks in the “Silent voices” project by looking at the far left column on the project rubric(link in previous section). These benchmark numbers dictate what the smaller rubrics will look like for grading each deliverable (since, remember from my note in step 4, we will never use this entire rubric at once!). So for example, benchmark #3’s rubric would include the following rows only: collaboration, viewpoints and narrative writing.

在“沉默的群体”项目中,您可以通过查看项目标题最左边的一列(链接在前一节中)来查看不同子任务所使用的量规。这些量规制定了每个子任务产出的评分标准(因为,请记住我在第4步中提到的,我们不会一次性使用整个规则!)例如,分解任务3的量规只包括以下几项:协作、观点和叙述写作

Step 6

Create Student-facing Rubrics

第六步:创建学生为中心的量规


Most teachers from most grades will tellyou that the language of standards are not student-friendly, and I agree! That’s why I encourage teachers to take their teacher rubric and convert it into a student rubric. To do this, simply take each row of your teacher rubric, look at the proficient box, and write the standard as success criteria for students, or “I can” statements. This breaks down teacher-facing language into vocabulary that students can understand, which helps them to know what is expected of them while also helping them reflect on their learning. Using the teacher rubric row from the above example, you can see what a row for students would look like below:

大多数老师都认为标准语言对学生不友好,我同意这个观点。因此我鼓励老师们把教师中心的量规转换成学生中心量规。教师需要把量规转为学生视角可以理解的内容,比如使用类似“我能……”的语句。这将以教师为中心的语言分解为学生中心的词汇,有助于学生明确教师对他们的期望,同时也帮助他们进行反思。


Step 7

Plan Daily Lessons Using a Project Calendar

第七步:使用项目日历计划每天的课程


Now is when ‘the rubber hits the road’ and it’s time to think about what daily learning will look like within your project. I like to simply use a Google Doc and create a table that mirrors that of a 30-day calendar, that way you can hyperlink all the daily lesson plans and resources so that it’s in one place. Most of what is linked in these Google Docs are simply workshop resources and lesson plans that teachers traditionally use tocover the content that appears in the project; or helpful new websites andactivities to cover contemporary topics.

这一步骤需要考虑项目学习的日常安排应该是什么样的。我喜欢简单地使用 Google Doc 并创建一个反映 30 天日历的表格,这样您就可以将所有日常课程计划和资源超链接到一个地方。这些 Google Docs 中链接的大部分内容只是教师用来涵盖项目中出现的内容的研讨会资源和课程计划;或涵盖主题的新网站和活动。

Again—backwards planning—I zoom out and look at the big picture before zooming in to look atthe specific days. I first map out approximately how long each benchmark will take me (typically 1-2 weeks) and then I go into each day and think about specific lessons within each benchmark. I then will drill down to think about differentiation within each day. Check out the companion site to Keep it Realwith PBL for sample calendars, resources on differentiation and project management.

我通过缩小查看完整图片,然后再查看具体的日子来确定使用逆向设计的方法。我首先大概规划出每个分解任务需要我花多长时间(通常是1-2周),再思考每个分解任务中的具体课程,并深入思考每一天学习内容的差异。



After spending a great deal of time working in PBL organizations, and writing my dissertation on PBL as a pedagogy inpractice, I landed on this flow for project planning because I think it simplified a process that can often become larger than life for teachers. It’s my hope that by embedding standards, best practices of UBD and formative assessment that teachers will begin to see how PBL can be a helpful framework for them to teach what they need to cover, without it feeling like one more thing to do!

在 PBL 组织工作了很长时间,并写了关于 PBL 主题的论文之后,我开始着手进行项目规划,我认为,对教师来说项目学习是简单可行的。通过制定标准践行 UBD 理论和实施形成性评价体系的方式,教师能够意识到PBL是他们可以在教学实践中运用的方法和体系,这个体系涵盖了足够的教学内容,为他们的工作减负!




编译自:https://www.cultofpedagogy.com/project-based-learning-lesson/


图片


编译:朱怡

排版:王佳怡

审核:桑国元


更新:2022/5/27 5:46:24 编辑:fengyefy
评论共 0网友评论
暂无评论
用户名  密码 请输入用户名和密码
网友评论仅供其表达个人看法,并不表明本站同意其观点或证实其描述
声明:本站是免费向教师学生校长家长提供教育教学资源的公益性教育网站,除“枫叶原创”系站长创作外,所有信息均转贴互连网上公开发表的文章、课件、视频和艺术作品,并通过特色版块栏目的整理,使教师学生校长家长方便浏览自己所需的信息资源,达到了一网打尽的惜时增效之目的。所有转载作品,我们都将详细标注作者、来源,文章版权仍归原作者所有。如果您认为我们侵犯了您的权利,请直接在文章后边发表评论说明,我们的管理员将在第一时间内将您的文章删除。
头条推荐

与3位清华学子聊“补课”这件事……

我们与几位清华大学的学生谈了谈他们的补课经历。作为高考上的“成功者”,他们在中小学时期经历了怎样的补课生涯?现在又如何认知和回忆这一段经历?补课在他们...详情
本类推荐/最新更新
更多...视频聚焦
更多...枫叶原创