- 项目学习如何开展？How to Create a Project-Based Learning Lesson
How to Create a Project-Based Learning Lesson？
If you would have asked me a decade ago if I thought Project Based Learning would ever expand beyond a small pocket of innovative schools I would have said “I doubt it”; I could never have imagined that it would be such a widely-used buzzword in 2020. To my pleasant surprise it has expanded to mainstream vernacular and is continuing to sweep acrossschools in our country.
And yet, despite all the buzz surrounding it, there still is a pretty wide range of understanding as to what high quality PBL is, and more importantly, how to plan for and facilitate it. To many, PBL is met with uncertainty and apprehension; while terms used to describe PBL, like organized chaos, productive noise, and student-driven sound appealing tosome, for the majority it creates a lot of unnecessary ambiguity.
尽管PBL日趋盛行，但对于什么是高质量的PBL以及如何设计PBL，仍然存在广泛的讨论。虽然一些用于描述 PBL 的术语，如组织的混乱、生产性噪音和学生驱动的声音对某些人很有吸引力，但对于大多数人来说，这些描述会产生歧义。
To most teachers’ surprise, I like to think about PBL as a structure, almost a formula, that can both uphold academic rigor and also engage students. To show you what that structure looks like in action, I’ll walk you through how I plan a PBL lesson step by step.
Project-Based Learning: A Working Definition
Before we jump into how to approach planning a project, it’s important that we are operating from the same definition of PBL, because there are many! After years of working in the leading organizations of the PBL movement I came to arrive on the following as my non-negotiables for a project to reflect high quality PBL:
It is grounded in standards.
It incorporates best practices of assessment for learning.
It’s authentic to the given community.
It explicitly scaffolds and assesses 21st century skills.
So what does it look like to put these non-negotiables into practice and plan a project? I will walk you through the process I have come to embrace and share with teachers who cross my path, either through our time together in the trenches during project coaching, or when they pick up my book, Keep it Real with PBL (for elementary and secondary). The specific project I highlight here, Silent Voices, is a collaborative effort between myself and the 5th grade team at Lake Elementary in Vista, CA.
那么，如何将这些必备要素付诸实践并计划一个项目呢?我将分享我的经历，也会和你们分享一些和我一起共事参与指导项目学习的老师，或者是我的书“Keep it Real with PBL”。我在这里分享的项目是“Silent Voices”（“沉默的群体”），是我和加州维斯塔湖小学五年级的团队合作的成果。
The 5th grade team at Lake Elementary is comprised of four teachers. The team wanted to tackle a content area they knew they needed to go “deeper” with to better engage their students: The American Revolution. We knew this topic was difficult to make interesting for students, but we believed that through PBL we could successfully provide them with a rigorous, authentic and meaningful learning experience.
Brainstorm Authentic Project Ideas
I often hear from teachers that getting started with a project idea is the hardest part, but for me it’s the most exciting part! I encourage teachers to identify a Driving Standard (these typically come from science orsocial studies because they both provide a nice context, which math or ELA can easily support). From there, think about a current issue that brings the standards to life.
Knowing they wanted to teach about the American Revolution, the teachers pulled the California social studies standards they were responsible for covering; specifically, 5.5: “Students explain the causes of the American Revolution” and 5.6: “Students understand the course and consequences of the American Revolution.”
We sat around a whiteboard and threw up abunch of ideas that could possibly make students interested in an event from over 200 years ago. We landed on the concept of connecting hidden voices (an issue that would feel relevant to them as 10 year olds) and empathy-building (a character trait from school also familiar to them) to the historic event. We also landed on supporting standards of Common Core ELA for narrative writing, compare and contrast, and research; but more on that later!
我们围坐在白板周围，提出了一堆可能会让学生对200多年前的事件感兴趣的想法。最终我们形成了一个能将hidden voices（隐藏的声音）和同理心构建与独立战争联系起来的想法。我们还为英语学习的共同素养（common core）培养制定了促进方案，包括叙事写作、比较和对比以及研究。稍后会详细介绍！
Plan with the End in Mind
My approach to project planning is verymuch rooted in Understanding by Design (UBD), so once I have identified the standards and an authentic issue, I then jump to the final product. There are so many ways students can show what they have learned—from public service announcements, to podcasts or documentaries, to art installations and simulations or performances. Whatever is decided upon, all the project planning from this point on is in service of preparing students to ultimately produce that final product.
As we continued planning this project, the teachers at Lake realized that there was SO much they could do with this concept of elevating silenced voices and building empathy awareness, that weactually had to scale back our final product ideas! Together we landed on having students create two final products:
当我们继续设计这个项目时，Lake Elementary的老师们意识到，他们可以用”silenced voices”（“沉默的群体”）和同理心构建的想法设计一系列活动，这让我们把最终项目产品的种类缩减到两种。
1) 2-voice poetry, which is a style of narrative poetry that showcases the similarities and differences between two unique perspectives, or voices. Students would write and create an audio recording of the reading of their written poetry to share via listeningstations at Open House Exhibition. This final product would showcase important ELA skills such as speaking and listening standards, the use of technology and writing production, and narrative writing techniques.
1)第一个产品是二声部诗(two -voice poetry)，它是一种叙事诗风格，表现了两种独特的视角或声音之间的异同。学生会创作并录制阅读自己写的诗歌的音频，并在开放日展览的聆听站与大家分享。最终的产品将展示侧重展示英语技能，如听、说能力以及写作技巧等。
2) Student art: Students would represent their understanding of a “hidden voice” or silenced perspective in a contemporary issue using symbolism and a specific art style (photography, digital art, painting, or pop art). Students would also write a detailed artist statement for submission of their work to the San Diego County Fair. In this artist statement students would explain the historical and contemporary inspiration for their work, style choices, and influences; thus bringing together the social studies standards and ELA research standards (and possibly en art standards if the art teacher chose to collaborate!), using topics of student interest as the context of the product.
Benchmark Your Project
This is arguably the most important step because it ensures that best practices of scaffolding and formative assessment are embedded in the project. Benchmarking is simply taking your end products and breaking them down into manageable phases, or milestones. Within each of these benchmarks the teacher identifies the content and skills necessary tocomplete the given phase of the project. Tied to each benchmark is a concrete deliverable that students turn in to be formatively assessed. While dailychecks for understanding are still happening and smaller assignments may becollected for credit, project benchmark deliverables are formatively assessed using a project rubric (more on that next!) and recorded in the grade book.
For the Silent Voices project, we identified the following benchmarks and deliverables:
In Benchmark #1 students learned about the “big picture” historical context of the American Revolution—the causes of the revolution and the early events and individuals—through textbook readings, PowerPoint lectures, videos and other short readings. The focus of these individuals and events was from a Eurocentric perspective—typical of what we would find in most textbooks. Students also began novels that represented voices of those we don’t typically hear in our textbooks: enslaved people, children, women,etc. To show that students had mastered the necessary content from thisbenchmark they completed a traditional history quiz. Sometimes it’s okay to include traditional assessment methods as benchmark deliverables—you don’t have to throw the baby out with the bath water in PBL, and in these circumstances a rubric isn’t necessary for grading since the feedback and the depth of learning are limited.
Benchmark #2 focused on the experiences ofthe “silent voices” in the American Revolution. Teachers provided model texts through short stories of Native Americans, white women, enslaved people, lower class,Chinese, religious groups, and children. Students continued reading their literature circle novels during ELA and also learned about narrative writing techniques through writers workshop methods. The benchmark deliverable for this second section of the project was a piece of writing titled “A Day in the Life of…” which represented what daily life was like for a person from one of the groups of the “silent voices.” This deliverable showcased their narrative writing skills, textual analysis skills, and content mastery for social studies. Because the textbooksdon’t provide the perspective of “the silent voices” students truly had to synthesize, analyze and apply what they were learning in ELA and social studies to be able to complete this benchmark—the higher order thinking that this project requires is one of the many reasons I love it!
分解项目2：本环节关注的是美国独立战争中沉默的群体（“silent voices”）的经历。教师提供关于美洲原住民、白人妇女、奴隶、下层阶级、中国人、宗教团体和儿童的短篇故事作为范文。学生阅读小说，并通过工作坊学习叙事写作技巧。项目第二部分的评价标准是一篇题为“A Day in the Life of…”（生活在XX的一天）的文章，它代表了“沉默的群体”的日常生活。文章将侧重展示他们的叙述写作技能、文本分析技能和对社会研究内容的掌握情况。因为教科书不提供“沉默的群体”的视角，学生需要通过分析、应用、整合他们语言学习成果和相关社会研究才能够完成这个的子任务。这项任务体现了项目学习中的高阶思维，这也正是我推崇它的一个原因。
Benchmark #3 required students to continue analyzing what they were learning on this topic by collaborating with a peer tofind the differences and commonalities across two unique “silent voices.” Students were guided through the processby discussion protocols, visible thinking routines, completing a venn diagram,and a workshop on 2 voice poetry. Ultimately they wrote and recorded the audio for this benchmark’s deliverable, a 2 voice poem to show two different perspectives from the American Revolution. This benchmark used narrative writing techniques from the second benchmark as well.
Benchmark #4 moved students from the historical time period of the American Revolution to the current day. Throughout this benchmark students were challenged to look for the perspective of the “silent voices”—whose story are we not hearing? Students were exposed to some contemporary issues though various forms of media, conducted a survey of other students to gauge problems within their student population, engaged in more discussion protocols and ultimately landed on a topic for their own research based ontheir interest (Special Interest Groups-SIG). After conducting this researchstudents created a detailed graphic organizer to show what they had collected and organized; some students chose to complete an info graphic as a challenge option.
Benchmark #5: In the final benchmark students applied everything they had learned about searching for the story of “silent voices” through historical and contemporary events, and used art as the vehicle for showcasing their knowledge and skills. Each of the four teachers identified a style of art they were passionate about—photography, digital art, painting and pop art. Each teacher created a series of workshops about their art style,including well-known artists, artistic composition, and basics of color and design. Students worked with the teacher that matched their interest, analyzedmodels from their given style, and ultimately learned how to create a piece of work that showed the silent voices in a given current issue from their research. Students went through the critique process of drafting and also completed an artist statement with their final product—all of which was curated and exhibited for the community.
Build Your Project Rubrics
In keeping with the spirit of UBD, I also create assessment tools with the end in mind, which produces a pretty large project rubric (but never fear, we never use ALL of it at once—more on that in step 6.
To build this rubric I encourage teachersto take the following steps:
Finalize the content standards you plan to assess; Note: each content standard gets its own row on the rubric. Then dropeach content standard into the “proficient” column of your rubric. In the case of the Silent Voices project we identified social studies standards on the American Revolution and Common Core ELA standards for narrative writing, compare and contrast, and research. Pull up Blooms Taxonomy verbs and bold theverbs in the language of the standards in a given domain. From there, referenceBlooms verbs to help you write the language of one level up (advanced) and onelevel down (developing/emerging). For example: Identify which 21st century skills you wantto scaffold and assess in the project. I like to use these New Tech Network rubrics and simply copy and paste the rows in their entirety into my project rubric. For this project we identified Collaboration: Commitment to Shared Success, and Agency-Growth Mindset.
Plan for Formative Assessment
Once the project rubric is completed then you can begin to think about which rows will be used with which benchmarks. Each benchmark will get its own separate, smaller rubric that will only have a few standards on it. I encourage teachers to try to map it out so that each row of the larger project rubric is used twice throughout the project. The purpose of this is so that students can reflect, receive feedback and have the opportunity to grow in each area at multiple points throughout the project; this is truly assessment for learning, rather than assessment of learning. What this also means is that each benchmark will likely only be assessed using 2-3 rows from your (very large!) rubric.
一旦完成了项目量规的设计，接下来就可以开始考虑每个分解项目将使用何种评价方式。每个子任务都有自己独立的、更精准的量规,教师可以根据项目整体的量规将子任务所需的量规绘制出来（每个子任务很可能只使用项目量规中的 2-3 项行进行评估）。这样的评价方式让学生能够在整个项目过程中进行多方面反思、持续接受反馈并有所成长，是真正的以评促学。
You can see which rows of the rubric wereused for which benchmarks in the “Silent voices” project by looking at the far left column on the project rubric(link in previous section). These benchmark numbers dictate what the smaller rubrics will look like for grading each deliverable (since, remember from my note in step 4, we will never use this entire rubric at once!). So for example, benchmark #3’s rubric would include the following rows only: collaboration, viewpoints and narrative writing.
Create Student-facing Rubrics
Most teachers from most grades will tellyou that the language of standards are not student-friendly, and I agree! That’s why I encourage teachers to take their teacher rubric and convert it into a student rubric. To do this, simply take each row of your teacher rubric, look at the proficient box, and write the standard as success criteria for students, or “I can” statements. This breaks down teacher-facing language into vocabulary that students can understand, which helps them to know what is expected of them while also helping them reflect on their learning. Using the teacher rubric row from the above example, you can see what a row for students would look like below:
Plan Daily Lessons Using a Project Calendar
Now is when ‘the rubber hits the road’ and it’s time to think about what daily learning will look like within your project. I like to simply use a Google Doc and create a table that mirrors that of a 30-day calendar, that way you can hyperlink all the daily lesson plans and resources so that it’s in one place. Most of what is linked in these Google Docs are simply workshop resources and lesson plans that teachers traditionally use tocover the content that appears in the project; or helpful new websites andactivities to cover contemporary topics.
这一步骤需要考虑项目学习的日常安排应该是什么样的。我喜欢简单地使用 Google Doc 并创建一个反映 30 天日历的表格，这样您就可以将所有日常课程计划和资源超链接到一个地方。这些 Google Docs 中链接的大部分内容只是教师用来涵盖项目中出现的内容的研讨会资源和课程计划；或涵盖主题的新网站和活动。
Again—backwards planning—I zoom out and look at the big picture before zooming in to look atthe specific days. I first map out approximately how long each benchmark will take me (typically 1-2 weeks) and then I go into each day and think about specific lessons within each benchmark. I then will drill down to think about differentiation within each day. Check out the companion site to Keep it Realwith PBL for sample calendars, resources on differentiation and project management.
After spending a great deal of time working in PBL organizations, and writing my dissertation on PBL as a pedagogy inpractice, I landed on this flow for project planning because I think it simplified a process that can often become larger than life for teachers. It’s my hope that by embedding standards, best practices of UBD and formative assessment that teachers will begin to see how PBL can be a helpful framework for them to teach what they need to cover, without it feeling like one more thing to do!
在 PBL 组织工作了很长时间，并写了关于 PBL 主题的论文之后，我开始着手进行项目规划，我认为，对教师来说项目学习是简单可行的。通过制定标准，践行 UBD 理论和实施形成性评价体系的方式，教师能够意识到PBL是他们可以在教学实践中运用的方法和体系，这个体系涵盖了足够的教学内容，为他们的工作减负！
- 更新：2022/5/27 5:46:24 编辑：fengyefy